Insight into the proteins in the brain that detect cannabis — ScienceDaily


Researchers at the University of Bristol have made new progress in understanding how cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), the proteins that detect the active components of marijuana, are controlled in the brain.

The brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells that are constantly communicating with one another at specialised junctions called synapses. Nerve cells possess extensions called axons, which send signals to synapses, and dendrites, which receive information from synapses.

At the synapse, the electrical ‘firing’ of a nerve cell causes the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminals of its axon. These neurotransmitters cross the synapse and pass on the signal by binding to receptors at postsynaptic sites on the dendrites of the next nerve cell.

CB1Rs help control information flow in the brain by binding molecules made in the brain called endocannabinoids, which influence brain functions such as pain, appetite, mood and memory. Unusually, endocannabinoid signalling goes in the reverse direction compared to most other neurotransmitters. The ‘receiving’ CB1Rs are located at presynaptic sites on axons, whereas the release sites are at postsynaptic sites on dendrites.

This reverse or ‘retrograde’ signalling that activates presynaptic CB1Rs ‘dampens down’ presynaptic release of other neurotransmitters resulting in a slowing of brain activity. Moreover, the active components of cannabis bind to CB1Rs in a similar manner to endocannabinoids, resulting in the ‘mellow’ sensation caused by the recreational use of cannabis.

For CB1Rs to regulate brain function properly, it is essential that they are sent to the right place on the surface of the axon. However, very little is known about exactly how this occurs. The research published today [Tuesday 30 April] in eLife investigated how this process happens.

The Bristol group showed that a specific part of the CB1R protein plays a key role in the getting CB1R into axons. The research team tracked newly made CB1Rs in nerve cells grown in a dish and found that a short region of CB1R is crucial for sending CB1R to the axon and preventing it from going to the dendrites. They also discovered that this region stabilises CB1R at the surface of the axon, making it more available to receive signals from endocannabinoids.

Jeremy Henley, Professor of Molecular Neuroscience in Bristol’s School of Biochemistry, said: “In recent years there has been tremendous interest in — and controversy about — activation of CB1R by medical marijuana. It is becoming increasingly apparent that activation of CB1Rs could be therapeutically useful for a wide range of diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Understanding the fundamental properties of CB1R is an important basis for future studies exploring the efficacy and optimisation of these targeted approaches.”

It is hoped that this increased understanding of how CB1Rs behave in nerve cells will pave the way for future studies aimed at examining the possible medical uses of marijuana, or other drugs that target CB1Rs, in treating a wide range of disorders.

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Materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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Tuesday, April 30, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


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Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Tuesday, April 30, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Canopy Growth Plans Hundreds of Hemp Jobs in New York State (Green Market Report)

// Oregon Senate OKs Freeze on Cannabis Cultivation (Leafly (AP))

// Judges deny request by Baltimore State’s Attorney Mosby to dismiss thousands of marijuana convictions (Baltimore Sun)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by our friends over at Eaze.com, California’s top one stop website for legal marijuana delivery. If you live in the golden state, swing over to Eaze.com to see if they are active in your area. With deliveries taking place in less than an hour, it’s never been easier to get legal California marijuana delivery. And of course, if you don’t live where Eaze delivers, you can still benefit from all the useful bits of industry insight and analysis they’ve developed using their properly aggregate and anonymized sales data stream.


// Colorado lawmakers approve marijuana bill to attract outside investors (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Marijuana Legalization Debated At Pennsylvania Joint Policy Hearing (Marijuana Moment)

// Connecticut Lawmakers Discuss Using Marijuana Tax Revenue For Community Reinvestment (Marijuana Moment)

// Poll: Plurality of Texans want full legalization of marijuana (Fox 4 News)

// Missouri to license 60 medical marijuana growers, 190-plus dispensaries (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Ontario’s legal adult-use cannabis sales hit new low (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Texas Lawmakers Approve Marijuana Decriminalization Bill (Forbes)


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Friday, April 26, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


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Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Friday, April 26, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// As medical marijuana licensing board disbands chairman criticizes court intervention (Michigan Live)

// Cannabis commission vows tight scrutiny of big marijuana firms – and harsh punishments for those that break license caps (Boston Globe)

// In a first, Mass. cannabis oversight agency denies state license application (Boston Business Journal)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast, Marijuana Today, and the Green Rush podcast. If you need to reach the best audience in legal cannabis, sponsorship of our shows is a fantastic choice. And if you want to make your own podcast, but need some help with production, then we’re there for you! Get in touch today.


// Scott lays out conditions for signing marijuana reform (My NBC 5)

// Why Weed Advocates Aren’t Happy About Joe Biden’s Candidacy (Rolling Stone)

// Aurora Cannabis exec: ‘Having a major presence in US is nonnegotiable’ (Marijuana Business Daily)

// ‘It could be your grandmother’: Typical marijuana dealer could be anyone, DEA agent says (Ohaha World-Herald)

// Senate Committee Supports ‘Home Grow’ Option for N.H.’s Medical Marijuana Program (New Hampshire Public Radio)

// Did a Cannabis Company Just Patent the Spliff? (Leafly)

// As pot flourishes in D.C., federal ban restricts use by tenants in public housing (Washington Post)


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Thursday, April 25, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


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Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Thursday, April 25, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// USDA Accepting Applications For Hemp Intellectual Property Protection (Marijuana Moment)

// Dunleavy not planning marijuana board repeal this session (660 News)

// Alabama Lawmakers Approve Medical Marijuana Bill (Marijuana Moment)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by our friends over at Eaze.com, California’s top one stop website for legal marijuana delivery. If you live in the golden state, swing over to Eaze.com to see if they are active in your area. With deliveries taking place in less than an hour, it’s never been easier to get legal California marijuana delivery. And of course, if you don’t live where Eaze delivers, you can still benefit from all the useful bits of industry insight and analysis they’ve developed using their properly aggregate and anonymized sales data stream.


// Michigan’s corporate medical marijuana growers rally for ‘clean cannabis’ (Michigan Live)

// Cresco Labs Reports 411% Increase In Revenue Turns Profitable For 2018 (Green Market Report)

// Bill Aims To Protect Party Bus Drivers From Second-Hand Cannabis Smoke (CBS 13 Sacramento)

// Nikki Fried: Florida Hemp Program Would Create An ‘Industrial Revolution’ (WLRN Public Media)

// Gov. Burgum Signs Immediate Changes To Medical Marijuana Program (KVRR News)

// Half Of Americans Think The Smell Of Weed In Public Is A Real Problem (Buzzfeed News)

// Cannabis Marijuana Weed Pot? Just Call It a Job Machine (New York Times)


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One in 7 Washington State drivers with children in the car recently used marijuana — ScienceDaily


According to a roadside survey conducted in Washington State, 14.1% of drivers with children in the car — nearly one in seven — tested positive for THC, the principal psychoactive compound in marijuana. The results are published in the latest issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Because detecting THC in blood or saliva does not correspond to impairment as does a positive alcohol test, it’s unclear if these drivers were actively impaired by THC. Nonetheless, the study sheds light on the potential for increased impaired driving, and the risks for children, for states considering legalizing marijuana, and the need for better roadside testing for THC.

“Currently, there are a number of different tests being developed and validated to detect whether drugs are present, including saliva and even breath tests for THC,” according to study coauthor Angela Eichelberger, Ph.D., from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. “However, there is still a need for reliable, valid measures of impairment.”

For their research, the group, which was led by Eduardo Romano, Ph.D., of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, analyzed data from a roadside survey of more than 2,000 drivers age 21 and older conducted in Washington State in 2014 and 2015, after the legalization of recreational marijuana sales there.

During both daytime and nighttime hours, researchers asked drivers at stop lights and stop signs if they wanted to volunteer for the study. They obtained breath samples as well as blood and saliva samples from the volunteers and noted if children were present in the car, and surveyed the drivers about their attitudes regarding substance use.

Whether drivers had a child in the car seemed to affect their choice to drive while impaired by alcohol (that is, have a breath alcohol concentration over .08%).

“Encouragingly, we . . . found that among those with children [in the car], most did not drink and drive,” the authors write. No study volunteers had breath alcohol concentrations above .08% if they had a child in the vehicle. But nearly 1% of those without children in the car were above this legal limit. Further, only 0.2% of drivers of children had any alcohol in their system compared with 4.5% of drivers with no children present.

However, having a child in the car did not affect whether drivers had THC in their system. More than 14% of drivers with a child in the car tested positive for THC, but so did 17.7% of drivers without a child in the car, not a statistically significant difference.

The authors also found that most of those surveyed said marijuana was “very likely” to affect driving. Still, some drivers did not recognize the risk of impairment, and those who thought marijuana was not likely to impair driving were more likely to test positive for THC than were other drivers. Among drivers with children who thought marijuana was not impairing, 40.6% tested positive for THC. Eichelberger notes that her previous research has shown that people tend to think that marijuana is less likely to impair driving than is alcohol.

“States need to consider multiple factors when legalizing marijuana,” concludes coauthor Tara Kelley-Baker, Ph.D., of the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety in Washington, DC. “Although there are legal age limits for purchasing and using, we know from previous research examining child endangerment issues that very young children are really vulnerable to driver impairment. States’ policies protecting young children from alcohol-impaired drivers are ineffective. Now we are legalizing another drug which may further increase risk to the most vulnerable group.”

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Materials provided by Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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Wednesday, April 24, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


The cover of the 'Preliminary Draft of the Rules Governing Maine's Adult Use Marijuana Program' with the title and the Maine flag emblem above set on a white background.

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Wednesday, April 24, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Aphria Closes $350 Million Convertible Note Private Placement Offering (New Cannabis Ventures)

// This Massachusetts marijuana store gets almost half its business from New York (Boston Globe)

// Half Of Marijuana Users In The US Think They’re Fine To Drive Stoned (Buzzfeed News)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast, Marijuana Today, and the Green Rush podcast. If you need to reach the best audience in legal cannabis, sponsorship of our shows is a fantastic choice. And if you want to make your own podcast, but need some help with production, then we’re there for you! Get in touch today.


// Dr. Bronner’s CEO Launches Non-Profit Cannabis Company (Ganjapreneur)

// Chart: Eastern US salaries top Western compensation in cannabis (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Marijuana Legalization Bill Debated In New Hampshire Senate Committee (Marijuana Moment)

// Texas House Votes To Legalize The Farming Of Industrial Hemp (Marijuana Moment)

// Michigan regulators polling prospective recreational marijuana licensees (Marijuana Business Daily)

// aHappy 4/20 Sacramento: DA dismisses or reduces more than 5,300 marijuana convictions (Sacramento Bee)

// Alabama county ending misdemeanor marijuana arrests (Tuscaloosa News)


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Tuesday, April 23, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


The cover of the 'Preliminary Draft of the Rules Governing Maine's Adult Use Marijuana Program' with the title and the Maine flag emblem above set on a white background.

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Tuesday, April 23, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// Maine releases draft rules for its recreational marijuana market. Read them here. (Portland Press Herald)

// Cannabis vaporizer company Pax Labs raises benchmark $420 million in funding (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Marijuana Legalization Not Linked To Increased Traffic Deaths, Study Finds (Marijuana Moment)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast, Marijuana Today, and the Green Rush podcast. If you need to reach the best audience in legal cannabis, sponsorship of our shows is a fantastic choice. And if you want to make your own podcast, but need some help with production, then we’re there for you! Get in touch today.


// Cops seize bikes without bells at 4/20 event (NY Daily News)

// It’s Not Easy Being Green for Cannabis Growers in Canada (Leafly)

// Neighbourhood pot dealers cheaper than government, StatsCannabis says (Alaska Highway News)

// Cannabis Church Co-Founder Found Not Guilty in 4/20 Case From 2017 (Denver Westword)

// Denver council refuses to loosen restrictions on social-use marijuana businesses (Denver Post)

// Nevada judge sets May hearing on lawsuits to halt marijuana licensing (Marijuana Business Daily)

// Merrill Lynch launches marijuana sector coverage predicts more cross-border deals (Marijuana Business Daily)


Check out our other projects:
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The Best Recreational Dispensaries in Denver

The Best Recreational Dispensaries in Denver

Updated On 04/17/2019 at 12:28PM EST
If you’re new to cannabis or to the city of Denver, it’s quite possible you’re feeling overwhelmed by the amount of recreational weed options here. In fact, more than 500 outposts are luring you in to spark up and gobble down hundreds of THC-infused products. That said, if you are not new to either the city or pot, and love to legally get stoned, let us pose this question: where do you go when you want to spend your hard-earned green on some locally-grown green?
[…]

Southwest Denver

An upscale homage to a historical hemp honcho… with very potent strains available
Stunning interiors, Chihuly glass art, and a pet alligator named Diego aren’t the only attractions at this top-notch locale. It’s about the consumer journey at Diego Pellicer, with a strong focus on the shopping experience. Rotating vendors have a chance to share the center display case spotlight, while inventory offers unique discounts and hard-to-find products. The namesake pays homage to an 1800s hemp entrepreneur, and the quality cannabis stems from two company grows, which regularly test with THC levels into the mid-30 and high-20 percentiles (that’s really good). Highly regarded for potency and well-grown genetics, this upscale outpost carries brag-worthy strains such as Witches Weed, Critical Mass, and Lemon Skunk…

10 most high-design marijuana dispensaries in the U.S.

Monday, April 22, 2019 Headlines | Marijuana Today Daily News


The criminal president Donald Trump is seen in a close up shot while giving a policy speech.

Marijuana Today Daily Headlines
Monday, April 22, 2019 | Curated by host Shea Gunther

// State-Legal Marijuana Use Makes Immigrants Morally Unfit for Citizenship, Trump Administration Warns (Marijuana Moment)

// Top execs at American weed retailer MedMen quit amid ex-CFO’s claims of financial duress (CNBC)

// Expungement Efforts Surge on 4/20 With Ben & Jerry’s, Code for America (Leafly)


Today’s headlines are brought to you by MJToday Media, publishers of this podcast, Marijuana Today, and the Green Rush podcast. If you need to reach the best audience in legal cannabis, sponsorship of our shows is a fantastic choice. And if you want to make your own podcast, but need some help with production, then we’re there for you! Get in touch today.


// How the Queen of Etiquette Got In on Pot (Rolling Stone)

// Study: Wisconsin would see $1.1 billion benefit with medical marijuana legalization (Madison.com)

// Congressional Committees Outline Plans For Marijuana Reform In 2019 (Marijuana Moment)

// Rep. Ilhan Omar: Legalize marijuana nationwide expunge criminal records of those jailed for pot offenses (Newsweek)

// The Indica vs. Sativa Distinction Isn’t Real (Slate)

// Lots Of Politicians And Companies Are Tweeting About Marijuana On 4/20 (Marijuana Moment)

// Carl’s Jr. CBD Burgers Go Over Big in Denver (Leafly)


Check out our other projects:
Marijuana Today— Our flagship title, a weekly podcast examining the world of marijuana business and activism with some of the smartest people in the industry and movement.
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Photo: Seth Anderson/Flickr



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